There are over 200 different species of parasites. Carriers of the eggs of these organisms in most cases are insects, and native mammals.
In the human body at the same time can live up to 5 kinds of parasites. About some he may not even be aware, but others represent an enormous danger to life.
Trypanosoma is a parasitic single-celled microorganism that can live in the human body and cause serious disease. Their parasitism is obligate in nature, so a living organism is the only place of living trypanosomes. Diseases caused by these single-celled, combined into 1 group called trypanosomiasis.
The most common and studied types of the following trypanosomes:
Trypanosoma is a unicellular parasite, is spread with flies Glossina (tsetse fly) that causes African trypanosomiasis.
Depending on the areas of greatest distribution are the following subtypes:
A distinctive feature of the trypanosomes from other parasites is the presence of these unicellular ability to circumvent the human immune defense.
The parasite is an elongated cell that consists of cytoplasm and nucleus, at certain stages has a long flagellum, which functions as a motor organ. The size of the parasite varies from 10 to 70 µm. Reproduction occurs vegetatively (longitudinal division).
The structure of the trypanosomes varies depending on in the body of a host (intermediate or final) is located.
There may be 2 phases of the developmental cycle of Trypanosoma brucei:
The vectors are bugs. Causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Habitat – South America (sometimes Central).
The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is represented by 3 stages of development:
A person can be infected African American or parasites through interaction with insect vectors.
The habitat of these insects are concentrated in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America.
Intermediate hosts for the parasites in most cases are a particular bug (in South America, mainly in Argentina) and the tsetse fly (in Africa).
Bug Triatominae is one of the most dangerous insects for man. Its bite is fatal in 9 cases out of 10.
To move into the body of the definitive host microorganism can 3 ways:
At risk of infection include primarily people in poor and densely populated regions of Africa and South America. The lack of personal hygiene, location of housing in woodland, dilapidated housing, dirt – all this triggers infestation.
Tourists must remember that vaccines against infection by such parasites do not exist!
For information, the risk of infestation to a minimum, tourists exotic countries of South America and Africa should observe the following rules:
IMPORTANT! Often the cause of infestation is failure to follow simple measures of self-defense!
African trypanosomiasis. Depending on the type of pathogen are distinguished:
The Tsetse fly, which carries trypanosomiasis, is not poisonous. Its danger lies in the transfer of pathogenic organisms and invasion of a human.
In 98% of cases of sleeping sickness occurs in primary chronic form.
After penetration into the mucosa or in the skin layer, starts the incubation period, which lasts up to 3 weeks. At this time, the parasites they share, and then penetrate to the lymph nodes (by hitting them) and the blood current which reach the tissues of the nervous system. In the chronic form the disease is much slowed down and is hidden, so the symptoms may come on slowly and people do not suspect the infection for quite a long time (from 1 month to several years). The acute course of the disease involves the primary aggressive onset of symptoms, resulting in easier diagnosed, but very rare.
American trypanosomiasis. The principle of distribution of trypanosomes in the human body similar to sleeping sickness, but in this case, the parasites cause degenerative changes mainly in the heart and esophagus (rarely in the liver, adrenal glands) and poisoning the body with toxins – products of its life. The incubation period lasts up to 2 weeks. Next comes the acute phase of the disease, which is manifested mild symptoms. 2-3 months after the infection, the disease becomes chronic. Symptoms are absent or almost invisible. In blood banks in Latin America the percentage of infection of blood parasites is higher than AIDS and can be up to 52%.
The bite of the tsetse fly is formed by a lit hearth, with a diameter of 10 cm, which is characterized by:
In the case of primary chronic version, the symptoms can accompany the person for years and are expressed as:
In the acute phase by the above symptoms are added:
After being bitten by this bug to defecate in the wound, feces contain parasites that enter through the skin into the human body, because the bitten place is accompanied by severe itching and itchy person.
On the site of the bite formed a focus of infection, with a diameter of 15 cm and is accompanied by redness and swelling. After the end of the incubation period, manifested the first symptoms of the disease:
The disease leads to CNS (Central nervous system) and ANS (autonomic nervous system), degenerative changes in the heart, esophagus, liver, and adrenal glands.
The major point of primary diagnosis of trypanosomiasis is the collection of anamnesis to identify the risk of infection (recent trip to Africa and Latin America, the presence of primary symptoms).
For more in-depth diagnostic measures resorted to deep research:
The diseases caused by these parasites are often disguised as other diseases, so you must spend a number of independent from each other research to accurately identify the infestation.
Vaccination against invasion of pathogenic microorganisms is not provided.
Measures of prevention include:
Besides the obvious measures to maintain hygiene of used products, as well as the above precautions, med. institutions are required to conduct educational work among the population. Must be available to convey to all segments of society, what is a parasite which causes sickness and what effects entail.
To protect themselves from infection with these parasites is impossible. Keep this in mind when deciding to go on a tourist trip to Latin America or Africa.
Do not neglect precautions, even if you think that they are not effective or there is no danger.