Worms in humans cause the development of diseases United by the General title of the lesson. Worms is worms-parasites that can be found in almost all organs of our body: the intestines, muscles, lungs, liver, heart and even eyes.
In the presence of worms in humans, symptoms do not always occur, if there, is masquerading as other diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, etc. Sometimes these symptoms are so blurred that the cause of a particular problem can be very problematic, especially when it concerns children.
Today we know quite a lot of parasites that can infect the human body. There are about 150 kinds of helminths. All worms in the form and structure of the body is divided into two major groups: roundworms or nematodes, flat worms.
Most of the worms are exposed to children, and the most common forms of helminthiasis (a disease caused by parasitic worms) are ascariasis and enterobiasis. The most dangerous worms that can live in the human body, are the Echinococcus and alveolars. For each group of parasites have developed special means of treatment that will bring the worms out of the body of an adult or child.
Worms that affect humans, there are more than two hundred types. Most of them in the middle lane are not found, so in Russia it is distributed in about sixty species. Parasites are divided into contact (the worms are transmitted from one person to another), geohelminths (the larva lives in the soil and infestation occurs by ingestion of soil particles of food) and biohelminths (parasites pass into the human body through the meat of infected animals or fish).
Call some of the most common groups of intestinal worms in humans:
Consider in more detail each of the types of worms that can live in the body of an adult.
The symptoms and signs of worms depend on the type of parasite, from its location in the body, and by the stage of its development.
The causes of worms infecting the human is very diverse, the route of infection depends on the type of worms and their life cycle, it can be:
In the course of their life worms produce toxic substances which are absorbed into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, harming vital organs and systems.
Sometimes worms are capable of for a long time without noticeable symptoms parasite in the body of an adult, in some cases they become the cause of various chronic diseases that cause dangerous complications and even death.
With the onset of acute helminthiasis, worms are taken to feed in the intestines of the sick person, causing different signs of digestive system: dysbacteriosis, stomach pain, diarrhea.
Let's see, what are the signs of worms? We list the most common, General symptoms of worms in humans.
As parasites, worms feeding on the body of his master. At the same time they absorb significant amounts of protein and carbohydrates, mineral elements, vitamins and other nutrients. The lesson can be acute or chronic. The first lasts 2-3 weeks and is often present allergies, chronic stage can last for months, years and even decades.
To determine the worms in the body need to answer the following questions and count the number of positive responses:
If positive responses seven, there is a probability of the presence of worms in the body. If positive answers more than 15, the probability of invasion at a high level. This is a clear reason for going to a specialist and conduct high-quality diagnostics.
Diagnosis of worms aimed at the detection of the parasite or its eggs and larvae in the feces and antibodies to them in blood or other biological substances.
Worms are primarily intestinal parasites. It is through the intestines are their eggs. Therefore, their diagnosis take a stool sample. In the pharmacy for collection of feces is possible to acquire a special container, although you can also use matchbox or a jar.
Thus, for delivery of the analysis will require the collection container and spatula. If a person sees fragments of worms, or whole worms, it also needs to send to the lab.
Do not have to carry a stool to the laboratory immediately after collection. It must be delivered to study during the day. By the time the collected biological material should be stored in the refrigerator. The exception is the collection of stool for testing for giardiasis. It is necessary to take warm, as when it is cooled cysts of parasites are destroyed. On time delivery of stool to the laboratory, the container should wrap a warm cloth.
For the diagnosis of enterobiasis take a scraping from perianal folds, as females lay eggs of a pinworm in this area. Before analysis should not be undercut about 12 hours or to visit the toilet. Therefore, the optimal time to perform the analysis – morning hours.
Scraping is performed with a cotton swab that is placed in a clean container and transported to the laboratory. You can also use sticky tape.
Delivered to the laboratory the biological material studied with a microscope. If a person is contaminated, the technician to see helminth eggs, larvae or segments. Each parasite lays eggs, is characteristic only of its kind. Therefore, studying the structure of the egg, you can determine what kind of worm parasite in the human body.
If there is a worm in the stool, most often it looks like a white stripe of varying lengths. Worms can maintain mobility. To determine the species of worm can in the laboratory.
However, by using the stool sample is not always possible to identify the worms. For example, the analysis would be uninformative, if in the human body parasites only males ascarids, who can't spare the eggs.
To identify worms in blood use an immunological study defining it antibodies to the major types of worms. The precision and accuracy of ELISA is equal to 95%. It can be used to identify extraintestinal forms of helminthiasis.
Interpreting the results of IFA in a simplified form:
In both cases you will need more advanced diagnostics and carrying out specific treatment.
The mainstay of treatment of worms in humans are specific de-worming drugs, adults assign time-tested best pills.
The choice of drug treatment depends on the specific presence of worms in the human body. In the acute period of the disease, the doctor may prescribe the patient anti-allergic drugs.
Only on the basis of tests, the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes a treatment for worms in humans, as a medicine against worms is quite toxic. If you examine the worms found again, the doctor determines how to bring the worms, offering a new treatment regimen based on the use of other tablets from worms, which will cope better with the task.
Traditional methods of treatment include herbs that have a laxative effect. Although the effectiveness of these products have not been scientifically tested, many of them have been used since ancient times to treat worms in humans in the home.
With regard to prevention, to prevention of worm infestation you need to wash your hands with soap and water after returning from the street, meat and fish subjected to heat treatment, do not drink unboiled water and not to bathe in polluted waters.
Due to the toxicity of anthelmintic drugs preventive medication is not prescribed without good reason. Sufficient cause for the treatment can be detection of worms in the Pets or one of the family members. Also required is the strict observance of rules of hygiene: