Types of worms in humans

Helminthiasis is a widespread disease. Suffer from it often, but children and the cases of infection adult worms are also not uncommon. This pathology is a great disadvantage and leads to serious consequences. It is therefore very important to understand how to diagnose the problem and how to fix it. It is necessary to consider many circumstances, and especially the kind of worms that entered the body. Parasites of various types are distinguished by their symptoms and severity. Therefore it is necessary to consider the types of worms in humans and its main features.

what are worms

Varieties of worms very much. For most of them a characteristic adaptation to the existence in the body of hosts only one species (an animal or person). This means that other types of animals can not be harmed by such infestation, because the parasite in their body will die. Therefore, there is a lot of worms that are harmless to humans. At the same time, threat of worms and microorganisms are also a lot. To understand what should be afraid you need to find out what are worms, stabilendam in the human body.

They can be divided into groups, each of which includes several representatives. Among these groups should be called round and tapeworms, flukes and protozoa.

Roundworms

Another name for these worms is nematodes. This type of worms is considered to be the most common. They are characterized by a round body shape in cross section. The body length of different species of worms may vary from 5 mm to 40 cm For life, they usually choose the intestine, but easy enough to migrate to the host body and can colonias in other organs.

The wide distribution of nematodes is due to the fact that the infection with them is very easy. Intermediate host is not needed, and they are transmitted from one infected to another. Also, the infestation can develop by eating unwashed fruits or vegetables. That is why infection by these helminths is characteristic of children, because they tend to violate the rules of hygiene.

The main representatives of roundworms that can live in the human body are:

Pinworms

It is a small parasite (5-10 mm) with the body grey color. Prefers to live in the gut. When present in the body there is a disease called enterobiasis. It can be transmitted when failure to observe the rules of hygiene, because the eggs of these worms enter the body through the mouth.Females lay eggs in the anus that causes severe itching. The patient scratching the area, which eggs are on the skin of the hands and under the nails. In sexy matura species the worm develops in 2 weeks. The lifespan of worms about two months. During this time the patient is disturbed activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and the more parasites accumulate in the body, the more intense the symptoms of enterobiasis. They are the following phenomena:

what are worms in the human body
  • the presence of itching in the anus (in female patients it can affect the genitals);
  • sleep problems (insomnia, interrupted sleep);
  • admixture of blood or mucus in the stool.

These features indicate infection pinworms. If untreated, the patient weakens, as parasites interfere with the absorption of nutrients. It affects the health and immune system.

Roundworm

This kind of worms is notable for its large size, the body length can reach 40 cm the best place of their habitat is the small intestines, but sometimes found in heart, liver and lungs. Moving the host organism, the roundworm can damage internal organs. Due to the presence of people develop allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disorders, possible internal bleeding. For children, these parasites are especially dangerous because they slow down the development process. The infestation develops due to dirty food and dirty hands.

Ascarides characteristic of great fertility, so infection by them is very dangerous. When the eggs are formed larvae, they, along with the blood moves through the human body, penetrating the respiratory system.

Because of this, the patient may begin coughing and asthma attacks. The lifespan of adult worms up to one year, and during that time, it can substantially hurt people. His presence in the body indicate the symptoms such as:

  • nausea;
  • anemia;
  • skin rashes;
  • increases in infectious diseases due to low immunity.

Hookworms

In this case, the infection occurs through skin or if swallowed larvae. With blood they may be in the lungs and heart, but prefer the small intestine. Hookworms live for about 4 years, causing the hookworm.

His symptoms:

  • fever;
  • increased salivation;
  • eosinophilia.

The pathology occur on the running stage of infection, when the body accumulates a large amount of worms. The initial stage you'll be asymptomatic, which detect pathology could accidentally.

Whipworm

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These worms prefer to be in the colon, lignum to the walls and feeding on blood. Is small in size (3-5 cm) and very high toxicity. When the parasite enters the cecum, it leads to appendicitis. To the host organism enters through the mouth. Eggs of the whipworm is moved through the body by the bloodstream, but adults live only in the colon. His life expectancy is about 5 years. With its ability to produce toxins, whipworm can greatly harm the body. The problem is that it is very difficult to diagnose because the initial stage in the development of invasion without pathological symptoms. With the progression of the disease can be observed:

  • nausea;
  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • diarrhea;
  • convulsions.

Toxocara

These worms live in the body of dogs, but can live in man. The infection occurs through contact with sick animals. The worm can reach a size of 15-30 cm, while in the human body this is not happening. These worms live in humans only larvae. They actively move through the body, causing the development of allergies and damaging internal organs.

The species Trichinella

It is a microscopic, since its dimensions do not exceed 5 mm. However, because it may develop trichinosis, which raises the temperature and symptoms of fever. To this invasion is possible, using meat that was not properly cooked. Without the necessary heat treatment of pathological microorganisms that are found in meat, not die, and penetrates into the human body. Live Trichinella in muscle tissue. In case of favorable outcome the patient recovers in about 4 weeks, but if the body got too many of these parasites, the patient may die.

This group of parasites is the most common, but there are other types of worms that are worth considering.

Tapeworms

If you examine all the varieties found in humans, worms, tapeworms are among the most dangerous. The main risk associated with the size, as this type of parasites can reach lengths of 18 m. because Of this, their influence on the human body negatively.

Full cycle of their life requires a change of the owner. Some portion of tapeworms live in the body of ungulate livestock, which is transferred to the people.

Common types of these parasites:

Dwarf tapeworm

This representative of tapeworms characterized by small size – only 1.5–5 cm Infestation is by the bite of an insect vector. The dwarf tapeworm eggs reach the small intestine where it Matures to the larva stage, and then spreads to the liver or the digestive tract. Also, this helminth can affect the functioning of the nervous system. The main symptoms of this infestation are:

  • poor appetite;
  • nausea;
  • nervousness;
  • headache;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • allergic reactions.
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A tapeworm

Because of this helminth develops difillobotrioz. Its size can reach 15 m. the Infection starts by eating freshwater fish, which has not passed sufficient heat treatment. The worms ' eggs penetrate the intestine where develop to adults.

Their life expectancy is about 25 years. The presence of these worms in the body leads to exhaustion and weak immune system, causing infection may develop again. Pathology indicative features such as:

  • severe abdominal pain;
  • problems in the functioning of the digestive tract;
  • anemia;
  • allergies;
  • tissue necrosis.

Pork tapeworm

This type of invasion occurs when a person eats infected pork. These worms can have a body length of 8 m. They prefer to parasitize in the intestine. Life expectancy is more than 10 years, and during that time helminth causes great harm to the host organism. That's the cause of intestinal obstruction, exhaustion of the nervous and physical character, weakens the immune system. When present in the body there are the following deviations:

  • allergic reactions;
  • disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract;
  • anemia;
  • pathology of the nervous system.

Beef tapeworm

He is among the most major parasites, reaching sizes of 18 m. People get these worms by eating improperly cooked beef. If such infestation high risk of damage to the walls of the small intestine or exposure to toxins. From bovine tapeworm life expectancy can be several years. It is especially dangerous that in the human body can live for several adults.

To detect pathology one of the following:

  • severe pain in the abdomen;
  • poor appetite;
  • disorders of the stomach.

Echinococcus

For these worms the man is intermediate host, adults live it in dogs and cats. People infected by contact with domestic or stray animals or by eating dirty vegetables and herbs. Despite the fact that a person can only live larvae, even they can cause serious illness – echinococcosis. It affects the internal organs, causing growth cystic formations. The presence Echinococcus in the body issue are:

  • severe pain in the upper abdomen;
  • skin rashes;
  • urticaria;
  • chills;
  • signs of fever.

Alveolar

what are worms Toxocara

The size of these parasites is small – only 4 mm. to Tolerate his dogs and other members of the family Canidae. To obtain such invasion can be by eating unwashed foods or through contact with animal carriers. These worms are very dangerous because people can die. Settling of parasites in the liver leads to the formation lauriot that are carried throughout the body. This causes the formation of a large number of lesions. They can affect the kidneys, heart, bladder and pancreas. It is important to detect the infestation in time, because at an advanced stage, she is not treated.

The types of helminthes that belong to this group, very dangerous. It is necessary to observe preventive measures to prevent infection with them, and at the first sign of infestation, seek medical help.

Flukes

This group includes worms, on the surface of the body which are a sucker. With their help, the parasites cling to the walls of internal organs, of them absorbing the nutrients or blood. They are flat, resemble in appearance the wood sheet, and their sizes can reach 1.5 m. the Infestation of these worms occurs when the use of seafood and fish after insufficient heat treatment.

Hepatic dens

It is small in size – they are not more than 5 cm Another name for helminth – cat Fluke. It causes a disease called opisthorchiasis. Infection of humans occurs by eating meat and fish after a poor heat treatment. This parasite attaches itself to the liver. Feature of the liver Fluke is its hermaphroditism, whereby he actively propagated even when injected into the body of only one individual. He is very prolific. Symptoms of the disease is weak, but because of the high reproductive capacity that can lead to liver destruction in a very short time. Additionally, the patient may develop pancreatitis, cholecystitis or ulcer. Its signs include:

  • muscle and joint pain;
  • high temperature;
  • diarrhea;
  • constipation;
  • rashes on the skin.

Fluke Siberian

Its dimensions are small and do not exceed 1.5 cm For helminth parasitism prefers the gallbladder and its ducts. To diagnose this infestation is easiest at the initial stage, because its symptoms at this time. With the transition in the chronic form, they are smoothed out.

If the body Siberian Fluke such violations occur, such as:

  • disorders in the digestive tract;
  • temperature rise;
  • pain in the joints and muscles.

Helminthiasis caused by these species of parasites, not less dangerous than the others. With a large number of pathological organisms, the patient's condition becomes much worse, and if you ignore adverse symptoms develop complications.

15.09.2018