Helminths in humans - symptoms, signs, treatment

The prevalence of various helminth infections among certain categories of the population are incredibly high: among children - pinworms among hunters, trichinosis, fishermen and fish lovers.

Moreover, the presence of worms in humans, symptoms do not always occur, if there, is masquerading as other diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, etc. From which a person can be years to be treated not know the true reasons for this ailment, and having 1 or more courses of antihelminthic drugs, recovering. In our article we will talk about General and specific signs of hookworms in humans.

How do you get worms?

worms in humans

As the worms enter the human body? There are 3 main source of helminth eggs in the body:

  • Lesson - through the ground (and then water), which contains the Mature eggs of many helminths which penetrate the ground with the faeces of man or animals, as well as by direct contact with animals and by transferring eggs of flies on the food
  • Contact - from person to person transmitted such well-known and the most common worms like pinworms, this is the highest risk of infection
  • Some parasites enter the body through the bites of insects

The basic mechanism of any infection is often the feces, that is, worm eggs, people just swallowed along with food, water, at least some helminth infestation occur through the bites of infected insects. With undercooked meat and raw fish is clear, but how can you be infected with worms by contact-household through the soil?

  • Through the soil

After any contact with earth, sand, you should not just wash hands and thoroughly clean the nails, it is better to have close-cropped fingernails, especially children. Foods that grow in the ground - vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries, mushrooms, everything connected with the earth requires a thorough wash under running water and scalding with boiling water. Pets, primarily dogs and cats, walking on the street, bring home a lot of dirt, and children playing with them are at highest risk of infection, the animal can easily infect all types of worms. Flies are the main carriers of the worms, while in the public toilets, places where lives of agricultural animals, flies and then sit quietly for food, carrying eggs on their wings and legs.

  • From person to person

In the presence of pinworm infection, others is easy. When the female pinworm crawls out of the night from the intestines, she lays about 5,000 eggs near the anus that causes severe itching, the child itchy combing the place, thrown on the hand, nails, panties, bed linen. Not washing your hands at once, on all subjects which it touches are still hundreds of eggs, door knobs, clothes, food, toys. The process of infection is clear at the hands of another child or adult, who enjoys these items also are deposited the eggs, and not washing your hands before eating, they fall into the mouth of a healthy person.

  • Through the water

A huge number of eggs of worms gets into open water to well water. Therefore, those who live in rural areas or in the country, should be to use antibacterial filter and be sure to boil the water, it is also dangerous to ingest water while swimming in open water.

Everyone knows that worms is mainly the problem of children. First because they are most susceptible to helminth infections, as protective barriers in the child's body is not formed sufficiently, the acidity of the stomach is lower than that of an adult. Secondly, kids preschool, learning the world, try all surrounding objects not only hands, but also the taste. And parents, with good intentions, can teach your child to strict compliance with the rules of personal hygiene without reminders, only to 3-6 years, which puts at risk not only the child but also all family members.

It should be remembered that no worms are unable to be fruitful and multiply in the human body, each species has its own period of time, after which they die, for example, have pinworms it's only a few weeks, the roundworm for about a year. Delayed adults eggs must exit the body with faeces or on the skin near the anus, into the environment, in soil, and only then, Mature outside the human body and getting into it again, they start to become active and to parasitize.

Because to multiply in humans, the worms can't increase the number of adults in the intestine of an infected person is only possible when re-infestation when the eggs fall again through the mouth into the body. That is, if we exclude re-infection which is possible only under compliance of strict rules of hygiene and of some preventive measures, in the case of the presence of pinworms, for example, a person could get rid of the worms after 3-4 weeks without any treatment. But not so easy to follow these rules toddlers and children of primary school age.

What are the common signs of worms in humans?

symptoms of worms

One of the most prominent symptoms, symptoms of worms in humans is severe weight loss, pale skin (anemia), a haggard look, as well as itching in the anus. But this is only the most obvious and popular signs, known to all, which happen when a massive infection. However, there are many other symptoms that a person perceives for the manifestation of other diseases and going to the doctor, often unsuccessfully treats them, not knowing an indirect cause of their occurrence or aggravation.

  • Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract

If the worms are localized in the intestine and not in the tissues and organs of the body, the major signs of the presence of worms in humans are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, such as constant diarrhea, chronic constipation, nausea or recurrent vomiting, abdominal pain, especially near the navel pain in the right hypochondrium, flatulence (bloating). These symptoms of the presence of worms in humans can be mild and be more intense and longer, it depends on the massiveness of infection. Some species of worms in the process of growth secrete hormone-like substances that cause diarrhea, and in a massive growth of large worms can partially block the intestines, causing constipation.

  • Disorders of the nervous system and General malaise

In the course of their life worms emit a lot of toxic substances, and the stronger the infection, the more symptoms of intoxication, negative effects on the nervous system of children and adults.

This is manifested headache, dizziness combined with nausea - in these cases, the person can take it as a migraine and treat it painkillers. You may also experience pain in the joints, increase the body temperature to subfebrile figures, or even fever.

Also the lack of vitamins and nutrients, which a person is deprived because of the bot, in conjunction with depression of the nervous system lead to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome, constant sleepiness and weakness, there is anemia, children can become more Moody, irritable, they have disturbed sleep, can be sleeping, screaming at night, nightmares, from-for absent-mindedness and inattention children can fall behind in school.

  • Allergic reactions and skin manifestations

At worms in humans deteriorates the health of the skin. Products life worms kill the organism and become the reason that similar proteins are perceived as allergens and this results skin reactions. Skin rash is the result of histamine release from mast cells and the amount of the liquid portion of blood in the tissue. For the same reasons can occur and various allergic reactions like a local - hives, itching skin, and General allergic rhinitis, dry cough, bronchial asthma. From an infected person worms, symptoms can be lamination nails, brittle hair and nails, cracked heels.

  • Decrease in immunity and, as a consequence of the development of infectious diseases

Such toxic effects, as well as the deprivation of an individual part of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and leads to a significant reduction of the host immune system. It may appear or worsening of existing chronic diseases, or begin various inflammatory processes in the nose and throat - sinusitis,sinusitis, stomatitis (stomatitis in children, stomatitis in adults), even in girls and women may develop various inflammatory processes in the genital organs vulvovaginitis, bacterial vaginosis (discharge with odor of fish), even the inflammation of the uterus in girls, is considered a possible cause of prolonged helminth infection.

There is a perception that snoring and gnashing of teeth at night are also a symptom of worms in humans, however, this is only an assumption.

In which bodies can live worms?

Depending on where in the body the worms are localized they are divided into:

  • Translucent

Abdominal worms is mainly thin and thick gut of the person, there are almost 100 different species of worms that live in different parts of the intestine. Species such as roundworm, a tapeworm, localized in the small intestine, pinworm, dwarf tapeworm in the lower third of the small intestine, whipworm lives in the large intestine.

  • Fabric

Tissue lesson - live in the intestine and in the tissues and organs of the human body in the muscles, lungs, and brain (cysticercosis), liver (hydatid cyst), and even in the lymphatic vessels (filariasis), etc. Roundworms belong to the tissue, as in the primary phase of development they can of the blood as larvae can affect any organ.

Symptoms of intestinal worms depending on the species of helminth

treatment of worms

Symptoms of helminthiasis are directly dependent on species of parasite, localization within the body and intensity of infection. How quickly there are signs of worms after infection? For example, for 2-3 days after infection, a person can feel the deterioration of the General state of health, in most cases other types of worm infections - the first symptoms of worms in humans occur after 2-3 weeks, and such diseases have an incubation period of 6 - 18 months.

The risk of infection with intestinal worms is the fact that in the presence of single individuals in the gut, helminth infections are often asymptomatic. Any symptoms may appear only with the huge size of the worm, for example, a tapeworm or Ascaris, or in case of massive contamination.

The test for determining the possible worm infestation

To check for possible infestation, you can count the number of positive responses to the signs of the appearance of worms in the human body:

  • Recurring or persistent itching in the anus
  • There is a rash on the skin
  • Often headache, dizziness
  • There is nausea, vomiting
  • Often bloating, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea
  • Restless sleep, insomnia, screaming in my sleep
  • Swollen feet
  • Allergic reactions - hives, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic cough
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • There are abdominal pain, independently stoped
  • There is a bitter taste in the mouth
  • Fatigue, constant fatigue
  • Work in child care or have children of preschool age
  • Sometimes unmotivated fever
  • Yellow skin and mucous membranes
  • Work related to animals or Pets
  • There are muscle and joint pain with no load
  • Do you snore or grinds her teeth at night
  • Love to eat meat with blood, dried fish, fat-streaked meat, sushi
  • Your weight has decreased with the decline or, conversely, increase appetite

With 7 positive responses - the risk of worm infestation exists, with 15 or more positive answers is a very high probability of helminthiasis and should consult the doctor to take three times a feces on eggs a worm, a common blood test, a blood test for giardiasis, scraping(three times).