Worms in humans – pathology of parasitic origin, which often is chronic and is accompanied by involvement in the invasive process of the various structures of the human body. Worms in humans do not develop immediately after contact with them through the so-called "entrance gate", and after some time, the duration of which depends solely on the type of pathogen.
Almost all worms have a single type of parasitism. According to world statistics, the infestation of worms in humans is the most common form of pathological condition that occurs in the human body.
In tropical countries the more common diseases in which identifies a variety of worms in the feces of man.
The largest group of this disease are worms that infect the gastrointestinal tract, and on the second place by frequency of occurrence are worms that affect the bile ducts. Very rare the presence of intestinal worms in humans in the pulmonary parenchyma and organs of the lymphatic system.
The spread of worms can occur in various forms, from egg to adult.
For the life of the worms, which belong to a special group of parasites necessarily requires the presence of the fact of change of owners. Worms that belong to the category of geo-helminthes are characterized in that their larval stage occurs in the natural environment.
Worms in humans most often sporadic.
Eggs of worms in humans can occur in the intestinal lumen and other structures (hepatic and pulmonary parenchyma). Tapeworm in humans is logged very rare and accounts for only 5% of all parasitic infestations. Infection of adult worms occurs almost by the same mechanism as that of the children.
The clinical manifestations of the presence of worms in humans can vary in a wide range that depends on the type of parasite. However, the presence of worms in humans is always accompanied by the so-called special syndrome, are common to all types of infestation.
Stating "as a conclusion worms at the person" can advise any parasitologist, and the patient must use antiparasitic medication only under the supervision of a physician. Antiparasitic preventive activities must primarily be the use of nonspecific measures of correction and hygiene skills.
Worms in humans are in different pathogenetic variants, the specificity of which depends on clinical symptoms. In the environment occurs an enormous number of worms, but not all of them are pathogenic for humans.
Worms are different in that they are unable to keep long signs of life without a master. Infection with worms of the human body occurs through the mouth, the skin. Each of the types of worm infestation is peculiar receipts worms in susceptible organism.
The speed of propagation of worms depends on the climate conditions. Thus, favourable climatic condition for the maturation of helminth infection in humans is the condition of high humidity and high temperature. The propagation process of worms in humans influenced by the socio-economic level of the population. So, a very high rate of worm infestation among the population is observed in countries with low sanitary standards.
The development of worms in humans occurs via various methods of infection. Pinworms are the most common helminthic infestation of man, and which is a small round worms are grey-white in colour, which enter the human body mainly of eggs by the oral route, i.e. through the mouth. Chronic worms when a worm infestation is most often caused by samsarajade. Adult pinworms ripens on average two weeks, followed by their migration into the lower part of the small intestine.
Larval stage pinworms secretes enzymes, which aimed at the destruction of the intestinal wall accompanied by a local inflammatory process. Worms in humans that provoke the development of enterobiasis, have only a mechanical effect on intestinal wall, which is accompanied by formation of many small bleeding erosions.
Worm infestation in humans, provoked by round worms, which can reach extremely large sizes. The beginning of clinical manifestations in worm infestation begins with getting eggs into the intestine with the subsequent arrival of larvae in the flow of circulating blood. The ultimate localization of Ascaris larvae is pulmonary parenchyma. Ascariasis is accompanied by the development of severe allergic reaction due to exposure to metabolic products of the worms.
Another parasitic infestation caused by ingestion of human alimentary way specific worm whipworm, which has an elongated shape and small settings.
Specific tapeworm in human tapeworm can reach a wide enormously large sizes. Human infection by this worm occurs when eating contaminated fish. Eggs of helminths in humans, excreted in the feces immediately after infection and only after 25 days.
Trichinella adults are active products eggs EN masse goes into the intestine, where they are maturing, with subsequent concentration in skeletal muscle.
Strong worm infestation develops after exposure larval stage of liver Fluke in the bile ducts. The adult liver Fluke is the same large size. Pork tapeworm parasitizes in humans mainly in the small intestine and the maturation of adults takes at least three months.
The principal difference of Echinococcus from other worms that are parasitic in the human body, is that disease does not have the adults and the Finns. Intermediate host for Echinococcus is a dog, and the man gets infected by worms in this situation the contact method. Primary localization of eggs of tapeworm is the intestine, where they transformirovalsya in oncospheres, which can spread throughout the body, finally concentrating in the liver and lungs.
Infection with worms of the human body, as well as the appearance of clinical symptoms, as a rule, has a special for. The acute phase currents of worm infestation in humans can last up to two months, while a longer course of the symptoms involves chronic pathological processes, the length of which is several years old.
The debut of the acute period of at worms in humans has been recorded since the penetration of the worm into the body and lasts throughout the time when the human body actively produces an immune reaction in response to introduction of foreign antigens, which is clinically manifested an intense allergic reaction. The acute phase of worm infestation in humans is always accompanied by development of clinical symptoms of the General intoxication which reflects pathogenetic processes that take place in the body, so at this stage the clinical picture verification of a special type of this disease almost impossible.
Chronic helminth infection in humans is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations, the intensity and specificity of which depends on the location of the pathological process, the concentration of the worms and their activity, as well as the possible development of special affection.
All worms that provoke the development of intestinal infestation sooner or later lead to the formation of metabolic disorders that are the cause of digestive disorders and malabsorption of useful nutrients and vitamins and minerals. During the long invasion in the human body accumulate waste products of the worms that inhibit the reproduction components of the normal intestinal microflora, causing disruption of the immune apparatus. Thus, in humans, the conditions for the development of chronic bacterial diseases.
Various forms of worm infestation are accompanied by different timing of the onset of clear clinical symptoms. So, for the worms characterized by a long latent period, and the clinical picture of ascariasis, on the contrary, debuts with the first day of worm infestation. Most worms that enter the human body, provoke the development of common exanthema, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, myalgia and arthropathy. During the examination of a patient suffering from worms, should be attentive to the complaints of the person and data of clinical examination as the majority of etiological variants of this disease accompanied by the appearance of specific clinical markers that allow early stage of the disease to establish an accurate diagnosis. An example of such a clinical marker may become jaundice in opisthorchiasis, swelling of the soft tissues in the trichinosis.
Chronic course of this disease, is generally asymptomatic in nature, except, if the body is a parasite tapeworm in humans. For enterobiasis characteristic clinical marker of chronic is the appearance of constant itching in the anus.
Specific clinical marker of helminth infection is the appearance of symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis, while for other helminthic infection characterized by early onset of anemia. The accumulation of worms type of roundworm in the intestinal lumen, becomes the cause of obturation intestinal mechanical obstruction, and also obstruction of the biliary tract.
Chronic worm infestation in almost all cases, provokes the defeat of the liver parenchyma, gallbladder, which is accompanied by nonspecific clinic hepatitis and cholecystitis. Worm infestation in humans provokes the formation of many liquid cystic structures in different organs, which are asymptomatic, however, differ in the tendency to develop inflammatory complications, which are accompanied by capsule rupture and development of peritonitis. With long-term chronic parasitic infestation in humans emerging signs of asthenic syndrome, which is at vegetative-vascular type.
It is an acknowledged fact, that the worms can provoke the development of polymorphic clinical symptoms in humans, is therefore a fundamental step in the diagnosis is a combination of careful collection of epidemiological anamnesis and application of laboratory analysis for parasites.
Diagnostic studies for intestinal worms are of paramount importance and should be undertaken prior to the appointment of medical treatment. Modern specialized laboratories can in a short time significantly not only to establish the fact of the presence of worms in humans, but also to identify the parasite. All the available Arsenal laboratories diagnostic techniques specialists can be divided into direct and additional techniques.
Direct analysis of the presence of worms in the human body refers to the special techniques, which aim at identifying either the worm, or any product of his life. Minor laboratory techniques allow only to establish the presence of secondary pathological changes that arise as a result of the presence of worm in the human body.
The most outstanding representatives of direct laboratory research is a special therapy (identification of the adult worm or its parts by the visual method in the preparation) and one therapy (the application of the technique of thick smear method, Kato–Miura, flotation and sedimentation, which can detect eggs or larvae of worms).
Immunological study of the presence of worms in humans have been applied relatively recently and consist in the use of skin test and indirect hemagglutination. Serological tests at worms in humans are often used as a marker of the efficiency of drug therapy against worms. Also in the daily practice of physicians have been introduced such as laboratory methods of diagnosis methods of R. Voll and resonance testing, the use of which allows to accurately identify worms in humans at any stage of development of the pathological process.
In such worm infestations in humans, as Echinococcus and alveolar initial value in the diagnosis is the application of instrumental methods of visualization of ultrasonic scanning, radiography and spiral computed tomography.
The role of biological material for the study of helminth infection are used by various natural release of human (fresh feces, portion of urine, duodenal contents, sputum, bile, rectal, blood, muscle tissue). As a result, the maximum prevalence of intestinal helminth infection forms are often found worms in the feces in humans.